Tibb & Treatment
Tibb & Treatment
Tibb is commonly known as Herbal treatment or medication. Human are practicing this means of cure since long. Being a spiritual healer and my research and services are also aligned with medications of herbal treatment. My interest increased my scope of knowledge in this field so I graduated from an affiliated renowned institute of Herbal/organic medications Pakistan. Firstly, we should have an introduction about Tibb al-Nabawi s.a.w because it will be easier and more exclusive to explain the methods and reasons.
What is Prophetic Medicine – Tibb al-Nabawi?
Tibb al-Nabawi refers to the words and actions of Prophet Muḥammadg with reference to disease, the treatment of disease, and the care of patients.
Tibb al-Nabawi also includes guidance on physical and mental health that is universally applicable to patients, at any time, and under all circumstances. It covers preventive medicine, curative medicine, mental well-being, spiritual cures (ruqyah), and medical treatments. It seeks to integrate body and soul in the quest for optimum health.
Learning is the pursuit of Muslims. For this reason, it is important to learn about Tibb al-Nabawi. As the Islamic scholar Imām Shāfiʿī said: “After the science which distinguishes between what is permissible and what is impermissible, I know of no science which is more notable than that of Tibb”
Pursuit of good health – with faith in the Decree of Allah.
As Muslims we believe that everything in the universe happens by the Decree and Will of Allah c. His Knowledge and Power encompasses all affairs. Man cannot, with his limited knowledge, fathom Allah’s plan for the universe. It is therefore in our best interest to accept the Decree (qadar) of Allah c in all matters. This does not mean that we should be fatalistic in our understanding of life’s events. What it does mean is that we accept what is in the dominion of Allah c as belonging to Allah c, and what is in the finite and limited power of man as being of man. We have to continue to make our own plans and use all the means at our disposal to achieve our ends. This applies equally to the pursuit of good health, as it does to all our other affairs.
A person who is in good health enjoys the greatest of blessings. Good health is not merely the absence of disease. It is the physical, mental and spiritual expression of a state of equilibrium that exists in a person’s life, between his or her nature, the lifestyle followed, and the environment in which he or she exists. It is necessary for the person who seeks good health to take measures that contribute to establishing this equilibrium. In many ways, illness is the inevitable outcome arising from pursuing a poor, toxic or unwise way of life. People in the main tend to develop poor health because they adhere to an imprudent lifestyle.
This may not necessarily be one of deprivation, like starvation or malnutrition. It can be from excess, as with many aspects that characterise the present Western culture: overconsumption of energy-dense food, lack of exercise, poor sleep, high stress levels and a toxin-laden environment. Everyone therefore, has a major responsibility to adopt a health-affirming lifestyle, not only to oneself, but to their greater community. As Muslims, this means living a lifestyle in accordance with the Quran and the Sunnah. Our bodies are a blessing and an amanah – a sacred trust given to us for which we are responsible in making suitable and appropriate lifestyle choices.
Tibb al-Nabawi perspective on illness conditions.
we recognise that we are obliged to maintain good health, we are also aware that during our lifetime we will be afflicted with some or other illness condition. How should we respond to this? The hadith narrated by Abu Darda provides us with the answer. “O Prophet, if I am cured of my sickness and I am thankful for it, is it better than if I were sick and bore it patiently?” And the Prophet g replied: “Truly the Prophet g loves good health, just as you do” The above hadith highlights the importance of maintaining health and seeking treatment when we are ill. Only with good health can we perform our activities of earning a living, performing ibadah and living a meaningful life. However, we should be aware that chronic and/or life-threatening illnesses will affect most of us at some time or other. During this difficult period, the hadith quoted below offers comfort and hope. Muslim narrated in his Sahih that the Prophet g said: “Every illness has a cure, and when the proper cure is applied to the disease, it will end it, Allah willing.”
Whilst it is important to seek proper treatment during illnesses, a person should guard against resorting to therapy that is not in keeping with the Qurʾān and Sunnah. We have it on the authority of a hadith narrated by Abu Hurayrah h who said that the Prophet said: “Whoever is treated with a remedy that Allah c has made permissible will be cured, but whoever is treated with a remedy that Allah c has made impermissible will certainly not be allowed by Allah c to be cured 4 ” From the above hadith, we are clearly instructed that permissible remedies that are in keeping with Quran and Sunnah, are the only treatments to be used. There is, however, one disorder for which treatment is not effective, and that is old age, highlighting that ultimately death is inevitable. Concerning this Usāmah ibn Shuraik narrates that the Prophet g said: “For Allah c, has not created a disease except that he has also created its cure, except for one illness…old age”
Types of illnesses
Now that we have a clear understanding on the acceptance of illness as part of faith, let us explore the types of illness conditions that may afflict us. “Sickness is of two kinds: sickness of the heart and sickness of the body”.
Both are mentioned in the Quran. Tibb al-Nabawi emphasizes that there is both sickness of the heart and sickness of the body. Sickness of the heart does not refer to the physical heart but rather the soul, which is resident in the heart. The heart contains two worlds within itself, the physical and the spiritual; it is a point of union where the body and soul unite. An important feature of Tibb al-Nabawi is the fact that it regards the human being as a sacred entity consisting of body and soul. In contrast, secular Western scholars describe the human being as being comprised of body, mind and soul, with the mind/consciousness being the centre of existence. In Islam consciousness resides in the soul.
As Muslims we should remember that when all the souls of mankind were created, a covenant was made between the souls and Allah. “And when your Lord took the seed of the children of Adam from their loins and (asked), ‘Am I not your Lord?’ and they bore witness, ‘Yes, we do bear witness…’ so that they not respond on the Day of Judgment by saying, ‘We were unaware of this. Quran 7:172
Sickness of the heart is of two kinds: sickness of uncertainty and doubt, and sickness of desire and temptation. The first is known as shubuhat or obfuscations, diseases that relate to impaired understanding. For instance, if somebody is fearful that Allah c will not provide for him or her, this is considered a disease of the heart because a sound heart has knowledge and trust, not doubt and anxiety. Shubuhat alludes to aspects closely connected to the heart: the soul, the ego, Satan’s whisperings and instigations, caprice, and the ardent love of this ephemeral world. The second category of disease concerns the base desires of self and is called shahawat. This relates to our desires exceeding their natural state, as when people live merely to satisfy these urges and are led by them.
Now we will discuss about some basic factors and scopes that plays a role in our body system. As food is a need of body without it, we cannot survive. So, let’s have some details about it.
Food and Drink
The importance of moderation in diet is emphasized in the Quranic verse: “Eat and drink, but not excessively.” Quran 7:31. This is further emphasized in the hadith narrated by al-Musand where the Prophet g said: “The son of Adam only needs a few bites that would sustain him, but if he insists, one third should be reserved for his food, another third for his drink and the last third for his breathing 2 ” The above ḥadīth is emphatic in that it warns us to guard against overeating, highlighting that fact that all we need is a few mouthfuls to sustain ourselves. This hadith is often misunderstood as many of us sitting on the table are of the opinion that we can enjoy a meal as long as we stick to the one-third ratio of our stomach divided into three equal portions of foods, liquids and air. However, emphasis of the hadith is actually placed on ‘a few bites to satisfy hunger’ – in fact it would be ideal to leave the table before your appetite has been satisfied. The emphasis of the hadith is clearly on moderation. Not only is it important to avoid overeating but to further ensure that adequate time is allowed for digestion between meals as reference below: Harith ibn Kaladah, the physician of the Arabs, was once asked, “What is the best medicine?” He replied, “Necessity – that is, hunger.” When he was asked, “What is disease?” He replied, “The entry of food upon food” This was also emphasized by Ibn Sina, who said, “Never have a meal until the one before it, has been digested.
The importance of eating halal foods is highlighted in the Quranic verse “Eat of the things which Allah has provided for you, lawful and wholesome; and fear Allah, in whom you believe.” Quran 7:31.
The guidelines for healthy eating take into account the qualities associated with different foods in relation to the qualities associated with the temperament of an individual. Unfortunately, today’s dietary advice does not take the aspect of qualities associated with foods into account. Ṭibb classifies food, drinks and spices as heating and cooling with levels of moistness and dryness. For example, watermelon is Cold & Moist and will therefore have a cooling and moistening effect whereas chicken, which has Hot & Dry qualities, will have a heating and drying effect when consumed.
It is interesting to note that the Ṭibb concept of qualities of foods can also be interpreted to the food groups that we are familiar with i.e. proteins, fats, carbohydrates and minerals as indicated below:
overall quality of dryness, but with degrees of heat or coldness, and the least amount of moistness. HEAT MOISTNESS DRYNESS COLD & MOIST Phlegmatic HEAT & MOIST Sanguineous HOT & DRY Bilious COLD & DRY Melancholic COLDNESS
overall quality of heat, but with degrees of moistness, and the least amount of dryness and coldness.
overall quality of moistness, but with degrees of heat and coldness, and the least amount of dryness.
overall quality of cold and moistness.
overall quality of cold and dryness.
An important concept in Ṭibb is exercise that benefits a person on a spiritual level. What good is a healthy body without a healthy soul? “…. Among the greatest sorts of exercise for the soul is that of patience, love, bravery and beneficence, and the souls continue to be trained thereby, little by little, until these characteristics become well-established dispositions.
Cupping is a therapy that stimulates certain points on the body by creating a vacuum in a suction cup. This leads to an increased flow of blood to the area. The cupping action draws impurities, toxins, pain and inflammation away from the deeper tissues and organs towards the skin where it can be eliminated. Cupping facilitates the healing process, and assists physis in restoring balance (homeostasis) to the body. Cupping is part of the range of eliminative or hands-on therapies practiced in most traditional healing modalities including Chinese Medicine as well as in African Traditional Medicine where it is known as u ku-gcaba. In Ṭibb al-Nabawī it is an important and effective treatment option.
Reported by ʿAbdullāh Bin Bujaynah h that Prophet Muḥammad g “took Ḥijāmah on the centre of his head (yāfūkh) and he was in Iḥrām while his journey to Makkah, ” The above cupping point is said to calm the mind and spirit and is therefore beneficial emotionally and spiritually. It is also used in the treatment of headaches, vertigo, mania and epilepsy.
The relevant ḥadīth of cupping on the base of the neck is quoted below: “Anas ibn Mālik h reported that the Messenger g was treated with cupping (hijāmah) three times on the base of the neck.
The Use of ʿIṭar (Essential Oils)
A pleasant ʿ iṭar (perfume) is an established Sunnah practice of the Prophet Muḥammad . “… perfumes are the most suitable and favourable remedy and substance for the soul. There is a close connection between the soul and scented. Perfume helps the brain … and brings comfort to the heart and soul. This is why perfumes were among the dearest … in this world to the heart of the Prophet (saw).
Herbal / Natural Medication
Schools of herbalism were in existence in the Egypt of the pharaohs, and much of the learning was transferred to the ancient Greeks. Hippocrates was allegedly trained by Egyptian tutors, and he referred to several hundred plants used to relieve maladies. Galen, another major figure in Ṭibb, was an enthusiast for herbal remedies, and introduced the first method for grading a plant’s therapeutic effectiveness. This development of herbal medication that was accumulated from different parts of the world was rekindled, and improved upon during the Golden Age of Islamic Civilisation by medical pioneers such as Ibn Sīnā, al-Birūni, al-Zahrāwi, al-Rāzi. Much of this knowledge found its way back to Europe during the renaissance period.
The ‘Age of Drugs’ began two or more centuries ago when active ingredients in plants were isolated and purified scientifically. This coincided with increased technological advances and the formation of the synthetic chemical and dyestuff industries.
The Unseen World, health and sickness
Although the world of the unseen can have a marked effect on us, we must be mindful that it can only happen with the approval of Allah c. Throughout history, many cases have been recorded of people falling ill due to the effect of the evil eye. Whether this is directly due to a malignant influence, or whether the person affected responds so negatively to the perceived gaze of the perpetrator and falls ill, or even dies, is a controversial topic. But there is no doubt that a person can be negatively influenced by someone else looking at him or her in such a way as to wish harm on the person. Of course, if a person’s іmān is strong, some contend that the evil eye power is diminished or neutralised. There are numerous accounts of people’s health being influenced by witchcraft and ill-intention. However, there is also a fine line between the real and hysteria. It has often been found that the cause of supposed incidents of witchcraft are in many cases overanalysed or illinformed versions of psychological conditions.
This is the use of supernatural forces to manipulate nature for personal or another person’s advantage, or to inflict damage on others. It was a generally accepted practice of most civilisations and cultures in the past. Even today, it is practiced in many countries, although surreptitiously or even secretly in developed countries. This is because the practice is frowned upon by modern science and logic-based societies, as it has unacceptable connotations of superstition, magic, sorcery and the existence of an unseen world. Witchcraft is usually regarded as the casting of evil spells, often using herbs and potions to cause harm or death. For those who subscribe to the existence of the physical world only, the ideas of witches, warlocks, devils and jinns, and the casting of spells, the evil eye and protection by charms are completely alien. The concept of the eternal struggle between good and evil, which is a cardinal feature in many religious belief systems, is equally unacceptable.
The Evil Eye (Al-‘ayn)
When injury, illness or personal misfortune can be inflicted upon certain people by looks made towards them by sorcerers, it is described as the evil eye. It may be carried out for reasons of malice, envy, or personal enmity, and the unfortunate victim is usually unaware of the harm being meted out. This power of harming a person by merely looking malevolently at him or her is a common concept in many cultures. Acceptance of the evil eye is evident in Islamic doctrine. The Prophet g is reported to have said: “The influence of an evil eye is a fact …” Belief in the existence and power of the evil eye is very much present in the Middle East, Africa, India and other developing regions. It is also accepted more in southern European countries. Ibn Hajr holds the view that the evil eye is a glance combined with jealousy that comes from a despicable person to affect another. Ibn Qayyim is of the opinion that the person casting the evil glance can do so involuntarily and is not necessarily an evil person. ‘Āmir ibn Rabīʿah h affected Sahl bin Ḥunayf h with the evil eye, despite the fact that ‘Āmir was not only among the early persons to accept Islam but also participated in Badr. Rasūlullāh g permitted using ruqyah in accordance with sharīʿah for treating al-‘ayn (evil eye) as reported by Muslim. Ibn al Qayyim said that al-ʿayn can be cured by reciting Sūrahs al-Falaq, al-Nās, al-Fātiḥah, the verse of al-Kursīy (Āyātul Kursīy) and the prescribed Prophetic duʿās (supplications) that many advocates. Some scholars, such as Ibn Kathīr, are of the opinion that when one sees something pleasing, then reciting ‘MāshāʾAllah lā quwwata illā billāhi will defend against the effects of an evil eye.
Protection and cure from the evil eye and siḥr
The Prophet g has advised that the believer seek protection and cure from the siḥr and the evil eye. Warding off the effects of the evil eye is commonly practiced by devout Muslims. Ṭibb al-Nabawī offers sound advice on protecting oneself from this. The basic advice on protecting against this malign influence is to lead a good life according to Islamic precepts. This ensures the blessing and protection of Allah c. The best way to protect oneself against the evil eye is by reciting the ruqyahs that are prescribed in sharīʿah and by reciting other Qurʿānic verses including Sūrah al-Baqarah verse 137, Sūrah al-Nisāʾ verse 54, Sūrah al-Qalam verse 51, Sūrah alMulk verse 3, Sūrah al-Ahqāf verse 31, Sūrah al-Isrāʾ verse 82, Sūrah alFussilat verse 44, Sūrah Yūnus verse 57, Sūrah al-Tawbah verse 14, Sūrah al-Shuʿarāʾ verse 80.
The existence of the supernatural, ‘unseen world’, with its attendant witchcraft, spirits and jinns, has existed in most societies since the dawn of time. It is still practiced in many present-day societies in spite of persistent attempts to eradicate it, especially in regions influenced by the West. It refers to the use of spells, magical incantations and supernatural power to exert some influence in a person who is unaware of this effect. Belief in the supernatural world is a feature of the Muslim faith, as is the malign force of the evil eye in inducing ailments in unfortunate people. Measures to neutralize the influence are available for those affected. Islamic teaching warns against being too hasty to attribute the cause of every problem to black magic. This has become too common. However, if it has been reliably determined that siḥr or al-ʿayn is the cause for the ailment then one should primarily turn to Allah c and resort to the remedies mentioned in the Qurʾān and Sunnah. It should also be remembered that if the help of others is sought, then one should only turn to those who are God-fearing and pious.